Apology and Psychology

Apologies and Legal Settlement

The empirical studies described here explore the proposition that apologies facilitate the settlement of civil disputes either by increasing potential plaintiffs’ inclination to accept a particular settlement offer or by altering parties’ perceptions and attributions in ways that might smooth the progress toward reaching a mutually satisfactory settlement agreement. More …

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Apologies and Plea Bargaining

Theoretically, encouraging apologies early in the criminal process may be a laudable goal given the potential benefits of apologies to victims, offenders, and communities. But empirically, the growing literature on apologies in psychology and law raises important questions about whether apologies-when made prior to sentencing-would lead to more favorable results …

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The Role of Apology in Negotiation

Is “I’m sorry” the hardest phrase to say? Does it matter whether you mean it? This essay examines the critically important issue of apology, and how and when an apology can be helpful or harmful in a negotiation. Reviewing the latest empirical work, the authors discuss the purpose, type and …

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Apologies and Settlement Levers

This study uses experimental methods to explore the role of apologies in legal settlement negotiation. Specifically, the study examines the influences of apologies on disputants’ perceptions, and the effects of apologies on a number of judgments that influence negotiation outcomes— settlement levers such as reservation, aspirations, and judgments of fair …

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Apologies and Civil Justice

This chapter explores the state of the empirical research on the role of apologies in the context of civil litigation with an eye toward suggesting avenues of future research. First, psychological theories that contribute to an understanding of how and why apologies influence judgments and decision making are explored. Apologies …

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Attorneys, Apologies, and Settlement Levers

This paper empirically explores how attorneys respond to apologies offered in litigation as they advise claimants about settlement, and compares the reactions of attorneys to those of lay litigants. While there is evidence that apologies influence claimants in ways that are likely to make settlement more likely, the research presented …

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Apologies and Medical Error

One way in which physicians can respond to a medical error is to apologize. Apologies—statements that acknowledge an error and its consequences, take responsibility, and communicate regret for having caused harm—can decrease blame, decrease anger, increase trust, and improve relationships. Importantly, apologies also have the potential to decrease the risk …

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