Apology and Psychology

Apologies and Legal Settlement

The empirical studies described here explore the proposition that apologies facilitate the settlement of civil disputes either by increasing potential plaintiffs’ inclination to accept a particular settlement offer or by altering parties’ perceptions and attributions in ways that might smooth the progress toward reaching a mutually satisfactory settlement agreement. More …

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The Role of Apology in Negotiation

Is “I’m sorry” the hardest phrase to say? Does it matter whether you mean it? This essay examines the critically important issue of apology, and how and when an apology can be helpful or harmful in a negotiation. Reviewing the latest empirical work, the authors discuss the purpose, type and …

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Apologies and Settlement Levers

This study uses experimental methods to explore the role of apologies in legal settlement negotiation. Specifically, the study examines the influences of apologies on disputants’ perceptions, and the effects of apologies on a number of judgments that influence negotiation outcomes— settlement levers such as reservation, aspirations, and judgments of fair …

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Apologies and Civil Justice

This chapter explores the state of the empirical research on the role of apologies in the context of civil litigation with an eye toward suggesting avenues of future research. First, psychological theories that contribute to an understanding of how and why apologies influence judgments and decision making are explored. Apologies …

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Attorneys, Apologies, and Settlement Levers

This paper empirically explores how attorneys respond to apologies offered in litigation as they advise claimants about settlement, and compares the reactions of attorneys to those of lay litigants. While there is evidence that apologies influence claimants in ways that are likely to make settlement more likely, the research presented …

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Bankrupt Apologies

Apologies result in better outcomes for wrongdoers in a variety of legal contexts. Previous research, however, has primarily addressed settings in which a clear victim receives the apology. This research uses experimental methods to examine the influence of apologies on a different kind of legal decision—the decision of a bankruptcy …

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